- My sex:
- What is my figure type:
- My body type is quite strong
- I like to drink:
Illustration by Peter Butler. Along with intellectual accomplishments those of creature comforts represent a second ificant benchmark for Greek civilization. By the end of the Hellenistic era Greek or Greco-Roman households attained a standard of comfort and permanence which was unsurpassed until modern times.
Greece, as a member State of international organizations, has accepted and ratified declarations on human rights and international conventions aiming at improving the position of the woman in all sectors of economic, political, social and cultural life of the country. In accordance with article 28, paragraph 1, of the Constitution,the rules of international law, as well as the international conventions as of their ratification by law, become an integral part of the domestic Greek law and prevail over any other opposite provision of law.
It was ratified by law by Parliament on 30 March and became valid as law of the State as of 30 April In the framework of the obligations resulting from the execution of the Convention, Greece submits its national report every four years to the Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Government of Greece, through the competent State agency, which is the General Secretariat for Equality of the Two Sexes, submitted its first report in and was examined by the Committee in March The first Greek report included the achievements in the periodduring which ificant measures were adopted for the establishment of the principle of equality of the two sexes in the country, such as the harmonization of provision of family and labour law, the creation of suitable institutional framework, etc.
The present report refers to the period and provides information on the condition of women in all sectors of social life, as well as the progress made during this period. It also records the targets of the policy for the equality of the two sexes for the future. For the preparation of the report a National Committee was established with the participation of representatives of the social and political life of the country; it functioned with the coordination and supervision of the General Secretariat for Equality.
The National Committee cooperated with all ministries as well as the public and private bodies and non-governmental organizations.
This coordinated effort resulted in a fuller and more objective recording and assessment of the condition of women in the country, despite the difficulties in collecting data concerning women in many sectors. Greece submits the present report in the hope that it will thus contribute to the effort made by the international community for identifying and eliminating all forms of discrimination against women.
The principle of equality of the two sexes was established in Greece by the Constitution,and founded during by laws aiming at eliminating discrimination against women in all sectors of the social life of the country. In the framework of the application of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international organizations the Council of Europe and the European Unionthe Government of Greece promoted in Parliament and passed laws that brought about profound change in the position of Greek women.
Important progress was also made at many levels by taking positive measures. At the same time, the appropriate institutional framework and the competent governmental agency were created to put into practice the principle of equality of the two sexes. In the periodificant laws were passed concerning the family, equality, working relations and social security, such as:. Furthermore, measures were adopted for the promotion of equal opportunities and positive actions were planned for the awareness of agencies in order to put into practice new ideas on equality.
The institutional interventions effected during in the framework of the governmental policy for the promotion of equal opportunities concern:. ificant changes came about with the adoption of these measures during the s that became clear to Greek society by the increased presence of women in all sectors. Almost all indices showed improvement, such as their participation in the labour force and employment, in the secondary and higher education, in the access of an increasing of women to "male" occupations.
However, despite the strengthening of the position of women in modern Greek society, the male view continues to prevail and dominate in representations and practices. Sex discrimination continues to exist at all levels of organized social life.
Thus, while women are increasingly represented, the positions offered to them are inferior. Their percentage is increased in positions that have no ranks and in those with part-time employment.
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Furthermore, there is still discrimination in the salaries of men and women in the private sector, while in television women are limited to minor roles and in politics they are underrepresented. Mostly men dominate in all sectors of power, production and circulation of symbolic goods, i.
By giving priority to the change of view concerning the roles of the two sexes in work, family, politics, social life, the action plan for equal opportunities,includes measures and strategies that contribute to the easing of inequalities between men and women and the elimination of their causes. The focus of the action is:. Particular activities suggested within the framework of the new community support framework refer to: i The creation and development of structures for the vocational training and informing on issues concerning the labour market.
A positive step in this direction is the proposal for the implementation of an informal code of behaviour which is decided by all and will bind all State, journalists, mass media owners, citizens .
According to the census, the population of Greece is 10,, of which 49 per cent are men and 51 per cent are women. The total fertility index was reduced from 2. The main reasons for the reduction in the birth rate are: domestic immigration, the cost of raising children, unemployment, an increase in divorce, insufficient social welfare for the working woman, the house and the environment in conditions of over-construction and the lack of green areas in urban centres, psychological reasons related to the insecurity of young people in social, economic and environmental issues and biological reasons.
Unlike the reduction of the birth rate, there is an increase in demographic ageing.
According to the data, the birth rates during are almost equal to the death rates. The cause of demographic ageing is the reduction of the birth rate as well as the reduction of the death rate in old age and immigration. Demographic ageing is particularly obvious in some parts of the country and constitutes the reason for the large increase in expenditure for pensions in the past few years. DuringGreek women gained more years of life than Greek men and the difference between the two sexes has increased.
However, in life expectancy at birth of Greek men Life expectancy is higher in urban regions and the death rate is higher in rural regions, a fact related to the lower educational level and the inferior medical and pharmaceutical care. However, geographical differentiation is constantly decreasing owing to the improvement of living conditions.
The infant death rate was ificantly reduced, from The child death rate was reduced by half during In particular, for everybirths, there are 5 deaths of women, when the average in industrial States is 13 everybirths. This index is related both to the position of women in society and the delivery of hygiene, which are excellent. The of marriages varied from 63, in to 59, in and 61, in The average age for marriage increased during from The of divorces also increased; divorce is no longer a social blemish. The of divorces varied from 7, in to 6, in and 7, in The of divorces per region varies depending on the geographic region and the presence of children.
Almost one in three couples living in Athens ends up in divorce. In Athens, living conditions become unbearable owing to stress; the ability of women to survive after a divorce is an additional factor. Between andwhile there was an increase in the proportion of women with one child from 41 to 45 per cent and two children from 31 to 37 per centthere was reduction in the proportion of women with three children from 14 to 12 per cent and four or more children from 13 to 5 per cent. On the other hand, there was an increase of births outside marriage, 18 per cent in and 2 per cent in and Single-parent families increased, although it is estimated that they are no more than 5 per cent of the total.
In the majority of cases, the parent is a woman. Another feature of the demographic status of Greece is immigration and repatriation. Sincethe prevalence of repatriation over immigration and the establishment of the repatriated outside the two large urban centres has contributed to the restructuring of the demographic forces of the province. During the s, the country changed from a forwarding country to an immigrant country.
At the beginning of the s, immigrants were estimated at betweenandpeople, many of whom were working without a work or sojourn permit.
During42, Pontiacs arrived in Greece see para. Their arrival has already had favourable impact on the demographic status of the country.
Since there has been strong interest in the demographic issue by local governments and agencies Parliament, Ministry of National Economy, Academy of Athens. In any event, all population policies in Greece respect the right of the couple and the individual to select freely and responsibly the of children they wish to have and the spacing of pregnancies. Greece has ed all relevant international texts and has adjusted its legislation to this effect.
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In Greece, female criminality is at very low levels both compared with male criminality and with that of other Western societies. The most common violations for which women are arrested are violations of the Traffic Code and the Construction Regulations, insults, minor thefts from stores - almost never for robberies or break ins - minor physical injuries and blackmail. In the last few years, there has been an increase in the use of narcotics by women.
Moreover, the total of convicted women per category of offences is much less than that of men. Therefore, all discrimination in the treatment of prisoners is prohibited, especially discrimination based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social descent, property or ideological convictions.
However, on the basis of scientific criteria, there may be different treatment of prisoners peras stipulated by law.
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Under paragraph 6 of article 13 of the same law, women are detained at women's prisons or at separate sections of prisons. Under paragraph 2 of article 22 of the same law, during the procedure of entry into the prison, the prisoner is submitted to a bodily search and search of their personal items, which is carried out at a special place and in such a way as not to prejudice the dignity of the prisoner. The search is carried out by at least two officers of the same sex as the prisoner.
Under article 30 of the same law, there is always a gynaecologist at women's prisons. Under paragraph 7 of article 38 of the same law, mothers who have their babies with them are always detained in individual cells with a surface of at least 40 square metres, properly arranged.
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Under article 72 of the same law, detained mothers who raise their children in the prison and pregnant women who work enjoy all the advantages provided for in legislation applicable to free working women in general. Under article of the same law, the custody of women prisoners is ased to personnel consisting mainly of women. At Koridallos Prison, which is the central prison of the county, of the approximately women prisoners are detained.
The remaining ones are detained in sections of other prisons. An especially high percentage of these women 90 out of are detained for violations of the narcotics law. Given that there is no specific prison for minor women, nor any special section for them in women's prisons, there is a problem in the separation of prisoners.
At Koridallos Prison, jobs have been created textile, goldsmith workshop, auxiliary jobs for convicted women. The existing problems mainly concern the lack of personnel, scientific or otherwise.
Detained mothers can keep their children in prison up to the age of 2 years. A special inter-party committee of Parliament that visited the women's prison in suggested provision of the following:. The legislative framework now applicable in Greece concerning the elimination of all forms of discrimination between women and men is considered one of the most advanced. Sinceificant changes have been made for the safeguarding of equality between men and women and the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, such as the amendment and revision of the family law and the introduction of new legislation concerning the elimination of discrimination in the access of women to education, vocational training, employment and working relations.
The Greek courts apply the principle of equal treatment of men and women in a satisfactory way in all cases referred to them. In fact, the Supreme Courts of Cassation, namely the Supreme Court Arios Pagos and the Council of State, recently issued judgements that constitute successful examples of provision of effective judicial protection in a way that conforms with the stipulations of Greek legislation concerning sanctions arts.
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In any case, the of court judgements is relatively restricted, if one takes into the direct and obvious discrimination that still exists, particularly in collective contracts and indirect discrimination. An important reason for this is that the concerned parties do not appeal to the courts because of the lack of adequate and proper information concerning their rights, and the fear of vindictive measures by the employer dismissal, unfavourable treatment, etc.
There are cases that are either not covered at all by the existing legislation or are insufficiently covered; as a result, the application of equal treatment becomes impossible. There are also individual cases of elimination of provisions of law. This stipulation was a positive action measure for the promotion of the participation of women at all levels of administrative hierarchy. Concerning the efficiency of the modernization provisions of family law stipulated ina special law drafting committee has been established in the Ministry of Justice with the participation of the General Secretariat for Equality in order to assess their application and suggest new regulations.
Furthermore, the same committee has suggested the creation of a family court, which would be a very important step towards the improvement and modernization of the stipulations concerning family relations.
It would be a special chamber consisting of regular judges specialized in family law and would include a social service consisting of pedagogues, sociologists and other special scientists, which would support their task. In any case the legislative framework, progressive as it may be, is not sufficient by itself to resolve the problems, safeguard equal treatment and promote equal opportunities.